Category Archives: LaTeX

Project Reporting with RMarkdown


RMarkdown  provides an authoring system for project and data science reporting.  RMarkdown is a core component of the RStudio IDE.  It braids together narrative text with embedded chunks of R code.  The  R code serves to demonstrate the model concepts in the text.  RMarkdown  produces elegantly formatted document output, including  publication quality data plots and tables.

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Welcome to {\footnotesize \LaTeX}, a markup language for typesetting documents, presentations, and web page content.  An example document is shown below. 

latex example

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What is {\footnotesize \LaTeX}

{\footnotesize \LaTeX} is based on the idea that it is better to leave document design to document designers.  By extension, it allows authors to focus on content and writing documents.  Unlike word processing, {\footnotesize \LaTeX} is not a point-and-click application.  It  involves the use of a text file with markup code or syntax.  The text file is then run through a compiler to produce a high quality, consistently formatted document.  

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LaTeX Basics

TeX vs. LaTeX

TeX is a computer program created by D. E. Knuth for typesetting documents. It combines a properly prepared text file and the TeX mark-up language to create a typeset document suitable for many kinds of printers. Word processing applications offer many conveniences, but they fail users seeking greater quality and flexibility of control. Many well-established publishers use TeX to typeset books,  mathematical journals, and newspapers.

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Latex Documents

Document Types

The following document types can be created using {\normalsize \LaTeX} mark-up code.  Predefined templates for each type ship with {\normalsize \LaTeX} and more can be found in open-source archives. For example, publishers provide templates to facilitate content delivery and typesetting, or to better align document structure and content:

articleCommonly used for short documents and journal articles.
IEEEtranFor articles with the IEEE Transactions format.
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Latex Font Sizes




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Latex List Structures


{\normalsize \LaTeX} lists can be created using several different list-making environments. These may be nested up to four deep. Each item in the list, regardless of type, is declared with the \item command.

Unordered Lists

List1Bullet lists are unordered (unnumbered) lists produced by the itemize  environment.  The default bullet style for level 1 is a filled circle.  For example:

Change Latex Lists: Bullet Styles

The default label scheme for a multi-layered itemized list is:

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Latex Page Format

 The geometry Package for LaTeX

Setting the {\small \LaTeX} page format or dimensions is not straightforward. You need to adjust several native dimensions to control the text area, and the four margins.  Fortunately, the geometry package greatly simplifies page formatting.

For example, it is easy to create a landscape document on a4papper with text dimensioned to be 8-inches width and 6-inches height:

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Latex Font Styles

LaTeX Text Styles

The most common font styles in {\small \LaTeX} are bold, italics and underline.  The \textit command will generate italics

Other styles are also available.  The first command is used to make a global declaration or font switch, and the second is used for discrete text blocks wrapped in braces:

  • Medium Series:           \mdseries        \textmd{}
  • Boldface Series:           \bfseries        \textbf{}
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Latex Paragraph Formats

The default for the Latex paragraph format is fine for many applications, but sometimes format changes are required.

New Paragraph in LaTeX

To start a new paragraph, you have to insert a blank line between them.

In this example the indentation at the first line of a paragraph, the line spacing, and the paragraph spacing are manually set in the preamble (as explained below). Meanwhile, there is another way to start a new paragraph using the \par command.

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Latex Line and Page Breaks

Summary of Commands

A {\small \LaTeX} compiler processes ordinary text from an input file into one long string of glyphs and spaces. To produce a printed document, this string must be broken into lines, and these lines must be broken into pages. The available commands are:

  • \\ start a new paragraph.
  • \\* start a new line but not a new paragraph.
  • \cleardoublepage flush all material and start a new page.
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Latex Math Basics

\small{{\LaTeX}} math has always been the motivating factor to abandon word processing.  \small{{\LaTeX}} math offers superior typesetting control over formulas, data tables, and figures.

Package Support

The amsmath package introduces several commands that are more powerful and flexible than the ones that ship with \small{{\LaTeX}}.  To use amsmath, add the following line to the document preamble:

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Custom Beamer Template

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Beamer is a \LaTeX{}~ document class that is by far the most practical tool for making presentations involving data science, business analytics, or general research. It is widely used in most conferences and easily lends itself to data intensive reporting and repetitive batch processing.

A custom beamer template is presented that is easy to extend or modify.  The benefits of the beamer document are numerous:

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