Category Archives: Linux

Linux Hotkeys (Ubuntu)

Hotkeys help to navigate around Linux. They control the user interface. Also, they introduce efficiencies into the user experience.

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Linux Cheat Sheet


Linux users and data analysts will inevitably spend time using the shell or terminal window to execute commands. Many Linux commands are easy to remember.  However, many are not. In response, the Linux cheat sheet presents tables with essential commands organized by topic .  The tables include useful keystrokes and powerful hacks.  The goal is to assist users and analysts to stay focused on solutions and not syntax.

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Linux APT

Advanced Package Tool (Debian)

The Advanced Package Tool (APT) is a software manager.  First of all, it is a user interface for the installation and removal of software.  it works on Debian, Ubuntu and other Linux distributions. In practice, APT retrieves, configures and installs software packages.  It can work with pre-compiled files.  It can also compile source code as needed.

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Linux OS Basics

Common Commands

The list below presents the most basic and common Linux commands:

Basic System Info



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Linux Intro

Installed Base

Linux  is a family of free, open-source operating systems (OS) and is  the leading OS used world-wide.  For example:

  • Android has a Linux kernel.  It has the largest OS base of general purpose smart phones with a global market share of 73%;
  • Linux is the leading OS on servers and mainframe computers.  97% of the top 1 million domain names use Linux.  In contrast, 67% of the top 10 million domain use Linux;
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Linux Utilities

Linux utilities help to interface with the OS, the server asset and its device stack.

Kernel Information

List of Keystroke Bindings

The following command will list all keystroke bindings in place.  However, the list is long.

Clean-up Utilities

File Space Usage

Device Utilities

The following commands are Linux utilities that provide information on the device stack for the user’s machine.  Additional tables are provided for specific devices that have high frequency interface.

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Linux File Management


Nautilus is the file manager for Ubuntu.  Hence, it is a core application. The keystrokes below simplify user interface:

Change Directories

It is easy to change directories using the the shell commands below:

List Files

There are many options to display the files on a hard drive.  First, change directories and use the commands below:

Copy and Move Files

Make Directory

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Linux Aliases

Aliases are shortcuts.  They are simple keystrokes commands.  Aliases avoid the need to type complex commands and their options.  Aliases are easy to create.  An alias is rarely more than one line of code. It is typical to store an alias in the  hidden .bashrc file.  In contrast, aliases can be stored in a dedicated file that is sourced by .bashrc.  The .bashrc file is run when the computer is booted.  As a result, the aliases are sourced and are placed into memory for immediate use.  Examples are listed below:

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Setting Up A Scientific Programming Environment in Ubuntu

With language, we learn to listen and to speak. With literacy, we learn to read and to write.  With programming, we learn how to use and to make software programs. Programming is the new literacy of the digital age.  Scientific programming is an essential skill.  It allows us to respond to new data structures and new technology, to expand Internet interfaces, to challenge common understandings or wisdom, and to access the control panels of machines and civilization.

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